Urinary Tract Infections [UTI] are caused by micro-organisms or germs, usually bacteria. The different types of UTI can include:

  • Infection of the urethra called Urethritis
  • Infection in the bladder which is known as cystitis
  • Infection in the kidneys known as Pyelonephritis
  • Infection in the vagina known as vaginitis

Some people are at greater risk than others of developing UTIs. These include:

  • Women – sexually active women are vulnerable, in part because the urethra is only four centimetres long and bacteria have only this short distance to travel from the outside to the inside of the bladder
  • People with urinary catheters – such as people who are critically ill, who can’t empty their own bladder
  • People with diabetes – changes to the immune system make a person with diabetes more vulnerable to infection
  • Men with prostate problems – such as an enlarged prostate gland that can cause the bladder to only partially empty
  • Babies – especially those born with physical problems (congenital abnormalities) of the urinary system.

Although not always backed up by clinical research, some women have found some suggestions useful in reducing their risk of developing urinary tract infections, including:

  • Drink plenty of water and other fluids to flush the urinary system.
  • Treat vaginal infections such as thrush or trichomonas quickly.
  • Avoid using spermicide-containing products, particularly with a diaphragm contraceptive device.
  • Go to the toilet as soon as you feel the urge to urinate, rather than holding on.
  • Wipe yourself from front to back (urethra to anus) after going to the toilet.
  • Empty your bladder after sex.
  • Avoid constipation.
  • First, it was the gut. Then came the vagina. Now it seems microorganisms in the female bladder could play an important role in health too.
  • They found both healthy and disease-causing bacteria moved freely between the bladder and the female reproductive tract, even in healthy women.
  • For the first time, Australian researchers have identified a collection of bacteria living in the female bladder that exists even in the absence of infection.
  • They've dubbed it the "bladder microbiome".
  • The findings paint the most comprehensive picture of the bladder ecosystem to date, and may provide new insights into the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections, said Samuel Forster, lead author of the study published in Nature.

Cranberries (usually as cranberry juice) have been used to prevent and treat UTIs. Cranberries contain a substance that can prevent E. coli bacteria from sticking to the urinary tract lining cells. However, recent research has shown that cranberry juice does not have a significant benefit in preventing UTIs, and most people are unable to continue drinking the juice on a long-term basis.

Antibiotic resistance 

Like many human infections, UTIs are usually caused by bacteria living on or in our bodies and require treatment with antibiotics. What’s alarming the medical community now is that UTIs are becoming ever harder to treat with common antibiotics.

Make sure to tell your provider if you’ve had UTIs before, and what antibiotic you took. If you have a history of antibiotic-resistant infections, share that, too. There are alternatives to Cipro and Bactrim, but antibiotic choices are limited.

Treatment and Prophylaxis in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

Appropriate diagnosis and treatment prevent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria, and end-stage renal disease.

Long‐term, low dose antibiotics to prevent repeat UTI should be reserved for those children at high risk of a repeat infection, such as young infants, and children clinicians would strongly want to reduce the risk of further infections, such as children with renal abnormalities.

Treatment involves seeking help and support from a trained professional that can not only find out what the issue is but more than likely assist in trying to mitigate the issues. They can do this by working with you to treat the incontinence and manage the symptoms