Certain types of treatment raise the risk of incontinence, including:
- Radiation therapy to the pelvic area. This may irritate the bladder.
- Chemotherapy. This may cause nerve damage, vomiting that strains the muscles controlling urination, or loss of hormones.
- Surgery to the pelvic area. This may damage muscles or nerves that help control urination.
- Bone marrow/stem cell transplantation with high-dose chemotherapy. This may cause vomiting and bladder inflammation.
- Treatments that cause early menopause and/or lower estrogen levels.
- Medicine that increases hydration or urine production. This can make incontinence worse.